I remember Mark Zuckerberg once saying “I definitely wouldn’t have gotten into programming if I hadn’t played games as a kid.”
This correlation is not a surprise although it did spark a revelation, when I was researching the most popular children’s apps for this blog post. The same apps kept appearing again and again. At that moment, I realized that creating a phenomenal kid’s app has an incredible, but often underestimated power to mold the future.
Through their apps, these designers and developers have incredible influence over future generations. Indirectly, their apps are responsible for creating our next Mark Zuckerbergs.
It’s fair to argue that these select apps have a larger collective impact on the future than massively successful, well-established companies we look up to, which is why designing a children’s app isn’t easy. In fact, it’s really quite difficult.
If you think you’re up for the challenge, keep reading. In this post, you’ll learn:
Designing for Kids vs. Designing for Adults: 4 Key Differences
The main difference between designing for kids and designing for adults comes down to the goal(s) of the users.
When you are designing for children, the finish line is just a small part of the story.
According to Debra Gelman, author of Designing for Kids: Digital Products for Playing and Learning, when you are designing for adults—even when designing games for adults—the goal is to help them cross the finish line. When you are designing for children, the finish line is just a small part of the story.
Here are four key differences to examine.
1. Kids love a good challenge or conflict.
Think about it. An adult, using a banking or email app, just wants to accomplish her task as quickly and easily as possible. Whereas a child, playing a game, enjoys challenges and conflicts along the way because it makes their accomplishment more significant in the end.
A prime example is Toca House, a popular iPad app by the makers at Toca Boca, which challenges children to vacuum a dirty rug. Of course, the rug is not clean after just one swipe because that wouldn’t be hard enough.
Gelman says that micro-conflicts – like vacuuming a dirty rug – helps children resolve their own inner conflicts. She bolsters her case with a LEGO study on conflict play, which states that micro-conflicts help kids develop skills like:
- Predicting how others are likely to react to their behavior
- Controlling their own emotions
- Communicating clearly
- Seeing other people’s points of view
- Creatively resolving disagreements
2. Kids want feedback on everything.
When playing in a digital space, kids expect visual and auditory feedback whenever they do something.
This is why most children’s apps generate some sort of reaction or response for every interaction. They expect to be rewarded for whatever they do.
3. Kids are more trusting than adults.
Because children can’t predict or understand the consequences of their actions ahead of time, they are typically much more trusting than adults. This means that you, as the designer, are responsible for knowing this and building safeguards into your app.
4. Kids develop faster than adults.
If you visit the App Store, you’ll notice that the kids’ category can be filtered by age ranges – “Ages five and under,” “Ages six to eight,” and “Ages nine to 11” among them. This is because kids develop much faster than adults, meaning an app for a four-year-old won’t also be a fit for a six-year-old.
A good rule of thumb: Focus on a two-year age range max. Just think about the differences between a four- and eight-year-old. While one age group may dive in and learn the app as they go, another may need clear instructions to boost their confidence in using the app.
Designing for Kids vs. Designing for Adults: 4 Key Similarities
The good news is you don’t have to relearn everything about you know about good design to make a children’s app. There’s still quite a few similarities between designing for kids and designing for adults.
Here are the four key similarities of designing for kids and designing for adults.
1. Users expect consistency.
Children and adults both expect design patterns to be consistent. Contrary to popular belief, kids don’t like it when everything on their screens do something “cool.”
According to Gelman, both kids and adults get annoyed by design elements that seem random and unnecessary. Children like items on a screen to do cool stuff as long as there is a method to the proverbial madness.
“Elements that get in the way or animate spontaneously or don’t contribute to the overall goal can frustrate kids and adults alike, and cause them to abandon a game or an app entirely,” Gelman says. “In addition, if everything on the screen moves, is brightly colored, or makes noise on the same level, kids and adults become confused about what is interactive and what isn’t, and this makes it very hard for them to use the site or app. A common design principle for adults is to keep interactions and feedback consistent so that users will be able to learn how use the site or app quickly. The same is true for kids.”
2. Users need a reason to use your app.
Your app must have a purpose, and its purpose must be obvious from the start, for both adults and children.
While it’s easy to believe children will just love exploring your app, they’ll quickly become bored if it doesn’t give them a reason to use it.
Whether designing for kids or adults, always clearly articulate what your app does and how it works before users have the opportunity to become bored with it.
3. Users don’t want to be surprised.
Users will envision your app working a certain way, and they expect it to work that way. They don’t want to be surprised when it behaves another way than they expected.
For example, when you’re purchasing something online, after you pay, you expect an email receipt and a message that confirms your purchase. Adults don’t want to be re-routed to a landing page, where you try to upsell them on another offering.
The same is true for kids, Gelman says, and she provides the following example.
“As a kid adding gems to a box in a game, you expect to be able to open the box where the gems are stored to see them all, not to have to open the box, pull out drawers, and hunt for the stuff you thought was in there,” she says.
Gelman calls this a lagniappe.
A lagniappe is a little something extra—an Easter egg—thrown in to delight users or customers, and both adults and kids enjoy these small, unexpected interactions that enhance their experience with a site or app.
Lagniappes are different from surprises, which as I mentioned above, users don’t enjoy.
A surprise is when someone comes up from behind you, when you’re deep in work and scares the crap out of you. A lagniappe is the first-class upgrade you got for free, when you were squished in a middle seat, between two crying babies and their mothers.
For example, Snapchat’s “pull down to refresh” feature shows a dancing ghost that changes colors, letting users know their feed is updating.
You can always steal some ideas from Toca Boca too.
Keep these differences and similarities in mind when designing apps for kids.
A Framework for Designing for Kids
Designing a good children’s app is more than just dumbing down adult concepts. Like designing for adults, you must understand your users and where they are cognitively, physically, and emotionally so your app resonates.
Simultaneously, you don’t want to stray too far away from common design principles either, which is why it’s helpful to also understand the similarities of designing for kids and designing for adults.
Some of these steps will probably look very familiar to you.
Drop your sketchbook, and pick up your notebook.
One of the reasons designing a phenomenal kid’s app is so difficult is because designers aren’t children. This is an issue because, as we all know, designers must have empathy with users.
But before you decide to go watch some random kids to figure out how they interact with each other, what holds their attention and what doesn’t, choose an age range – two years max – to focus on.
Once you picked an age range, it’s time to observe, and take notes.
Let’s be real, kids can be difficult to understand, especially for those of us who aren’t around them a lot. This is why you have to observe them to actually understand them.
Also, today’s children are digital natives. They have grown up with technology from day one so even if you can somehow remember what being a kid is like, you can’t possibly fully relate to today’s youth.
Try observing different groups of children in the same age range, such as children who know each other, all girls, all boys, indoors and outdoors.
Children communicate volumes simply by how they play, what they choose to play with, how long they choose to play with it, and when they decide to play with something else. Source
How do they play, communicate and interact with things in their environments?
Surprisingly, any silly thing a child does could potentially tell you how [s]he will use your app.
Here’s a few things you could ask yourself.
- Do kids in this age range enjoy sticking to the rules, or do they prefer inventing their own games?
- Are they trying very hard, or are they just trying to out-silly each other?
- Are there differences between the ways boys and girls approach play?
Now, it’s time to take things up a notch, and choose a specific type of play to narrow in on that relates to your app.
Toca Tea Party, the popular iPad app by Toca Boca, is a prime example here.
It began as a paper prototype, with cutouts of teapots, cups and saucers, sitting on top of an iPad. The creators set out the elements, and let children play with it.
“Originally the idea was to make the food, but the kids just wanted to get past that part,” says Jeffery. “Now we have pre-made cakes but you get to set the table. One of the most appreciated features was spilling. That came from the kids. ‘Ooooh, he spilled!’”
Consider participatory design.
Participatory design, also called co-design, is a phenomenal method for understanding children. It involves gathering groups of children together, giving them craft supplies, and having them come up with their own design ideas for your product.
This helps you – not because the kids’ designs will be good – but because you’ll understand how they view different subjects. For example, if a girl creates a fairy to help her with her homework, what type of personality does it have? Is she mischievous like Tinkerbell or caring like The Fairy Godmother in Cinderella?
You could also give children workbooks, or have them create collages or storyboards for you as well.